The Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics is operated by the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) program. The ORNL DAAC archives data and model products related to biogeochemical dynamics which are the result of the interactions between the biological, geological, and chemical components of the Earth's environment. As components of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System (EOSDIS), DAACs generate EOS standard data products and carry out NASA's responsibilities for data archival, distribution, and management. Many of these sites also carry related data products that pre-date EOS. DAACs and affiliated data centers have home pages and FTP sites for transfer of information and data.


Current list of projects supported by Mercury


Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) The Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) Vision: Providing a reliable, comprehensive view of USGS data that accelerates scientific discovery and reveals new connections to increase our understanding of Earth's natural systems. CSAS Mission: With expertise in technology, informatics, and science, CSAS leads the management and delivery of scientific data and information for the USGS. CSAS implements and promotes standards and best practices to enable efficient, data-driven science for decision making at multiple scales. We build critical relationships to identify the data, and to develop and deploy appropriate technological solutions that support rapid response to emerging natural resource issues.


DataONE - ONEMercury ONEMercury is a web-based tool for searching a shared metadata repository for data products held by DataONE member nodes. ONEMercury will be released in March 2012. It is based on the Mercury toolset developed under funding from NASA, DOE, and USGS, with some additional support from NSF. ONEMercury also incorporates Complex Objects in Spans (COinS) tags, to enable loading search results into bibliographic tools such as Zotero and Mendeley.


The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC provides data management support for major projects, including the AmeriFlux Network, continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum at different time scales for sites in the Americas; the Ocean CO2 Data Program of CO2 measurements taken aboard ocean research vessels; DOE-supported FACE experiments, which evaluate plant and ecosystem response to elevated CO2 concentrations, and NARSTO, which assesses ozone and fine particle processes in the troposphere over North America.


NARSTO The NARSTO partnership is a non-binding, tri-national public/private alliance, open to science agencies, regulatory agencies, regulated industries, academic institutions, environmentalists, and public interests groups in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The NARSTO mission is to plan, coordinate, and facilitate comprehensive, long-term, policy-relevant scientific research and assessment of primary and secondary pollutant species emitted, formed, transformed, and transported in the troposphere over the North American continent. The current emphasis is directed toward the study of ozone, particulate matter, and their precursors. To accomplish this mission, NARSTO provides a cross-organization planning process that determines the most effective strategies for scientific investigation, and establishes and maintains effective communication channels with the policy, control technology, and health and ecological effects communities.


CDIAC's Ocean CO2 Data Program CDIAC provides data management support for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) CO2 measurements taken aboard research vessels during World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program (WHP) cruises. WOCE is a major component of the World Climate Research Program with the overall goal of better understanding the oceans role in climate and climatic changes resulting from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The levels of CO2 in the oceans are unevenly distributed because of complex circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles. Although CO2 was not an official WOCE measurement, a coordinated effort, supported in the U.S. by DOE, was made on WOCE cruises through 1998 to measure the global-scale and temporal distributions of total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and related parameters.


NGEE Arctic The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) seeks to increase confidence in climate projections by quantifying the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of terrestrial ecosystems in Alaska. Initial research will focus on the highly dynamic landscapes of the North Slope (Barrow, Alaska) where thaw lakes, drained thaw lake basins, and ice-rich polygonal ground offer distinct land units for investigation and modeling. A focus on scaling based on investigations within these geomorphological units will allow us to deliver a process-rich ecosystem model, extending from bedrock to the top of the vegetative canopy, in which the evolution of Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate can be modeled at the scale of a high resolution Earth System Model grid cell (i.e., 30x30 km grid size). This vision includes mechanistic studies in the field and in the laboratory; modeling of critical and interrelated water, nitrogen, carbon, and energy dynamics; and characterization of important interactions from molecular to landscape scales that drive feedbacks to the climate system. A suite of fine-, intermediate-, and climate-scale models will be used to guide observations and interpret data, while process studies will serve to initialize state variables in models, provide new algorithms and process parameterizations, and evaluate model performance.


SPRUCE The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change Project (SPRUCE) is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.The SPRUCE experiment is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] – Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.


Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) Soil moisture is a measurement need in four out of the six NASA strategic focus area roadmaps (climate, carbon, weather, and water roadmaps). It is used in all land surface models, all water and energy balance models, general circulation models, weather prediction models, and ecosystem process simulation models. Depending on the particular application area, this quantity may need to be measured with a number of different sampling characteristics. Traditional remote sensing techniques using radars and radiometers fail to meet such requirements due to their large footprints.This project introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective is to enable a guided and adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of spaceborne soil moisture sensors such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Spatially, the total variability in soil-moisture fields comes from variability in processes on various scales. Temporally, variability is caused by external forcings, landscape heterogeneity, and antecedent conditions. Installing a dense in-situ network to sample the field continuously in time for all ranges of variability is impractical. However, a sparser but smarter network with an optimized placement plan and optimal measurement schedule can provide the validation estimates by operating in a guided fashion with guidance from its own sparse measurements. The feedback and control take place in the context of a dynamic physics-based hydrologic and sensor modeling system. The design of this smart sensor web consists of the control architecture, sensor placement and scheduling algorithms, physics-based hydrologic and sensor models, and actuation and communication hardware.


Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. As the program evolved to include additional measurements of aerosol and precipitation, the original ground sites were supplemented with three mobile facilities and an aerial facility. This comprehensive scientific infrastructure and data archive were designated by DOE as a scientific user facility—the ARM Climate Research Facility—in 2003, and are freely available for use by scientists worldwide.


U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Catalog (USGS SDC) The USGS Science Data Catalog displays USGS open data assets in a searchable public data listing, while offering a single point of entry for USGS records to display in Department of the Interior and indexes, among others.